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Thread: More on the "Big Five" Five-Factor Model of Personality

  1. Top | #11
    Administrator lpetrich's Avatar
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    I checked Google Scholar and I counted how many hits:
    • "five-factor model" personality -- 161,000
    • "Big Five" personality -- 227,000
    • "Myers-Briggs" personality -- 35,000
    • MBTI personality -- 20,900
    • Enneagram personality -- 3,170

    I must say that I find the Big Five easier to understand than Myers-Briggs.

    Personality Dimensions in Nonhuman Animals: A Cross-Species Review (1999)

    Their table of the five factors:
    N Neuroticism vs. Emotional Stability Anxiety, depression, vulnerability to stress, moodiness
    A Agreeableness vs. Antagonism Trust, tendermindedness, cooperation, lack of aggression
    E Extraversion vs. Introversion Sociability, assertiveness, activity, positive emotions
    O Open vs. Closed to Experience Ideas/intellect, imagination, creativity, curiosity
    C Conscientiousness vs. Impulsiveness Deliberation, self-discipline, dutifulness, order

    Authors Samuel Gosling and Oliver John treated Dominance and Activity as separate personality dimensions instead of as subsets of Extroversion, what is typical of our species. In children, however, Activity may be a separate dimension.

    They then discussed studies of the behavior of chimpanzees, gorillas, rhesus monkeys, vervet monkeys, hyenas, dogs, cats, donkeys, pigs, rats, guppies, and octopuses. Here is a phylogeny:

    Old World simians: (((human, chimp), gorilla), (rhesus monkey, vervet monkey))
    Boreoeutheria: ((OWS, rat), ((dog, (hyena, cat)), donkey))
    Osteichthyes: (Boreo, guppy)
    Eubilateria: (Oste, octopus)

    Nearly all species had evidence of Extroversion and Neuroticism, though their expression varied between species. In octopuses, the counterpart of Extroversion was Boldness vs. Avoidance.

    Ancestry of neuronal monoamine transporters in the Metazoa note that serotonin and dopamine transporter proteins go back all the way to the ancestral bilaterian, if not further. Meaning that the roots of Extroversion (dopamine) and Neuroticism (serotonin) go back a long way.

    Another common one was Agreeableness, though the guppy and the octopus seemed to lack it. Openness is more spottily distributed, and was mostly curiosity-exploration and playfulness, much like human toddlers. The authors propose that this spottiness is from what the animal observers were looking for, since curiosity has been observed in many species.

    Conscientiousness was observed only in us and in chimps, though for chimps it was more narrow and it was the low pole of that trait: attention, goal directedness, and erratic, unpredictable, and disorganized behavior. Dogs and cats have a personality factor, Competence, a mixture of Openness and Conscientiousness features, but not anything like what chimps have. So Conscientiousness is likely a recent evolutionary innovation, shared by us and chimps and perhaps other species.

  2. Top | #12
    Administrator lpetrich's Avatar
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    Then an interesting bit on sex differences. Women tend to have more Neuroticism than men, for instance, but different species may differ.
    To illustrate this point, we collected observer ratings of humans using items previously used in a study of hyenas (Gosling, 1998). In humans, women were described as somewhat higher on N than men; in hyenas, the sex difference was reversed, with males being considerably more high-strung, fearful, and nervous than females (see Fig. 1). What explains this dramatic interaction effect? The key is the difference in social organization: In the hyena clan, dominance rank is transmitted through a matrilineal system, and females are larger than males and more dominant.
    In our species, the Neuroticism score was female +0.1 and male -0.1 -- not a big difference. But for hyenas, it was female -0.5 and male +0.7 -- a much greater difference.

  3. Top | #13
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    I once took a three hundred question quiz to figure out where I fall in these categories, but then my online results disappeared into the ether. Should do another one but I think I could predict my results.

    Anyway, related to the thread here's an article out of HBR:

    These 3 Personality Traits Affect What You Earn — but Only After Age 40

    Being extroverted, disagreeable, and conscientious correlate with higher lifetime earnings.

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    Administrator lpetrich's Avatar
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    PsyArXiv Preprints -- an archive of psychology preprints. I looked for "Big Five" and "Five Factor", and I found 40 and 26 hits each. But I found nothing for "Myers-Briggs" or "MBTI" -- even less interest than I found in the sources that Google Scholar indexes.

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    Administrator lpetrich's Avatar
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    Finally, A Personality Quiz Backed By Science | FiveThirtyEight featuring a Big Five test. It also features the identification of personality facets in "The Big Five Inventory–2 (BFI-2)": Colby Personality Lab | Psychology | Colby College

    I took the one at the site, and I found:
    • Extraversion 10
      • Sociability 0
      • Assertiveness 12
      • Energy Level 19
    • Agreeableness 56
      • Compassion 44
      • Respectfulness 75
      • Trust 50
    • Conscientiousness 82
      • Organization 88
      • Productiveness 92
      • Responsibility 69
    • Negative Emotionality 15
      • Anxiety 12
      • Depression 31
      • Emotional Volatility 0
    • Open-Mindedness 92
      • Intellectual Curiosity 100
      • Aesthetic Sensitivity 81
      • Creative Imagination 94

    Scale: 0 to 100

  6. Top | #16
    Mazzie Daius fromderinside's Avatar
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    Remember the Maine! or Colby ME the place where personality Theory was sunk. or alternatively, there is soft science and then there is personality theory science.

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    Administrator lpetrich's Avatar
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    I'll put together the two-subtrait and three-subtrait systems:
    • Stability
      • Conscientiousness
        • Industriousness, Orderliness
        • Organization, Productiveness, Responsibility
      • Agreeableness
        • Compassion, Politeness
        • Compassion, Respectfulness, Trust
      • Neuroticism
        • Volatility, Withdrawal
        • Anxiety, Depression, Emotional Volatility
    • Plasticity
      • Openness
        • Intellect, Esthetic Openness
        • Intellectual Curiosity, Aesthetic Sensitivity, Creative Imagination
      • Extroversion
        • Enthusiasm, Assertiveness
        • Sociability, Assertiveness, Energy Level

    Some two-trait and three-trait sets rather obviously correspond, with one trait matching, and the other trait being split in two, but some do not correspond quite as well.

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    Administrator lpetrich's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by fromderinside View Post
    Remember the Maine! or Colby ME the place where personality Theory was sunk. or alternatively, there is soft science and then there is personality theory science.
    Why Colby ME? There's a Colby College in Waterville, ME.

  9. Top | #19
    Mazzie Daius fromderinside's Avatar
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    There you go You make my point even more obscure geographically, more accurate practically, yet, irrelevant to my comment overall.

  10. Top | #20
    Administrator lpetrich's Avatar
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    Here's a paper on Big-Five-MBTI correlations: The big five versus the big four: the relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and NEO-PI five factor model of personality - ScienceDirect Yes: MBTI = Big Four

    There is even less in the professional literature on the ennegram than on the MBTI. The enneagram ("Big Nine?) has these nine types:
    1. The Reformer - principled, purposeful, self-controlled, and perfectionistic
    2. The Helper - generous, demonstrative, people-pleasing, and possessive
    3. The Achiever - adaptable, excelling, driven, and image-conscious
    4. The Individualist - expressive, dramatic, self-absorbed, and temperamental
    5. The Investigator - perceptive, innovative, secretive, and isolated
    6. The Loyalist - engaging, responsible, anxious, and suspicious
    7. The Enthusiast - spontaneous, versatile, acquisitive, and scattered
    8. The challenger - self-confident, decisive, willful, and confrontational
    9. The Peacemaker - eceptive, reassuring, complacent, and resigned

    From How The System Works — The Enneagram Institute

    But I've found this: The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator: Estimates of Reliability and Validity: Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development: Vol 36, No 4 In their sample, they found correlations among all nine enneagram types, as well as the Big Five types:
    1. +C -E . -Ent +Ref -Ind
    2. +O . +Inv -Ent +Ind -Cha -Hel
    3. +N -A +C . -Pea +Loy +Ind
    4. -O +A +C .+Loy -Inv -Ref -Ach -Ind -Hel -Cha
    5. +C +N +O . +Ref +Hel -Cha

    The correlation coefficients are 0.73, 0.70, 0.62, 0.53, and 0.26

    So there is a little bit of correlation between the enneagram and the Big Five.

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