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Thread: Terahertz Tecnolgy

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    Terahertz Tecnolgy

    Terahertz based technology can do a ST tricorder function to a point of imaging through a solid.

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...75761913000264
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terahertz_radiation

    Terahertz radiation – also known as submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, tremendously high frequency[1] (THF), T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux or THz – consists of electromagnetic waves within the ITU-designated band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz (THz). One terahertz is 1012 Hz or 1000 GHz. Wavelengths of radiation in the terahertz band correspondingly range from 1 mm to 0.1 mm (or 100 μm). Because terahertz radiation begins at a wavelength of one millimeter and proceeds into shorter wavelengths, it is sometimes known as the submillimeter band, and its radiation as submillimeter waves, especially in astronomy.

    Terahertz radiation can penetrate thin layers of materials but is blocked by thicker objects. THz beams transmitted through materials can be used for material characterization, layer inspection, and as an alternative to X-rays for producing high resolution images of the interior of solid objects.[2]

    Terahertz radiation occupies a middle ground between microwaves and infrared light waves known as the “terahertz gap”, where technology for its generation and manipulation is in its infancy. It represents the region in the electromagnetic spectrum where the frequency of electromagnetic radiation becomes too high to be measured digitally via electronic counters, so must be measured by proxy using the properties of wavelength and energy. Similarly, the generation and modulation of coherent electromagnetic signals in this frequency range ceases to be possible by the conventional electronic devices used to generate radio waves and microwaves, requiring the development of new devices and techniques.

    Medical imaging[edit]

    Unlike X-rays, terahertz radiation is not ionizing radiation and its low photon energies in general do not damage living tissues and DNA. Some frequencies of terahertz radiation can penetrate several millimeters of tissue with low water content (e.g., fatty tissue) and reflect back. Terahertz radiation can also detect differences in water content and density of a tissue. Such methods could allow effective detection of epithelial cancer with an imaging system that is safe, non-invasive, and painless.

    The first images generated using terahertz radiation date from the 1960s; however, in 1995 images generated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy generated a great deal of interest.

    Some frequencies of terahertz radiation can be used for 3D imaging of teeth and may be more accurate than conventional X-ray imaging in dentistry.

    Security[edit]

    Terahertz radiation can penetrate fabrics and plastics, so it can be used in surveillance, such as security screening, to uncover concealed weapons on a person, remotely. This is of particular interest because many materials of interest have unique spectral "fingerprints" in the terahertz range. This offers the possibility to combine spectral identification with imaging. In 2002 the European Space Agency (ESA) Star Tiger team,[17] based at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Oxfordshire, UK), produced the first passive terahertz image of a hand.[18] By 2004, ThruVision Ltd, a spin-out from the Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (CCLRC) Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, had demonstrated the world’s first compact THz camera for security screening applications. The prototype system successfully imaged guns and explosives concealed under clothing.[19] Passive detection of terahertz signatures avoid the bodily privacy concerns of other detection by being targeted to a very specific range of materials and objects.[20][21]

    In January 2013, the NYPD announced plans to experiment with the new technology to detect concealed weapons,[22] prompting Miami blogger and privacy activist Jonathan Corbett to file a lawsuit against the department in Manhattan federal court that same month, challenging such use: "For thousands of years, humans have used clothing to protect their modesty and have quite reasonably held the expectation of privacy for anything inside of their clothing, since no human is able to see through them." He sought a court order to prohibit using the technology without reasonable suspicion or probable cause.[23] By early 2017, the department said it had no intention of ever using the sensors given to them by the federal government.[24]

    Scientific use and imaging[edit]

    In addition to its current use in submillimetre astronomy, terahertz radiation spectroscopy could provide new sources of information for chemistry and biochemistry.

    Recently developed methods of THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz TDS) and THz tomography have been shown to be able to image samples that are opaque in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. The utility of THz-TDS is limited when the sample is very thin, or has a low absorbance, since it is very difficult to distinguish changes in the THz pulse caused by the sample from those caused by long-term fluctuations in the driving laser source or experiment. However, THz-TDS produces radiation that is both coherent and spectrally broad, so such images can contain far more information than a conventional image formed with a single-frequency source.

    Submillimeter waves are used in physics to study materials in high magnetic fields, since at high fields (over about 11 tesla), the electron spin Larmor frequencies are in the submillimeter band. Many high-magnetic field laboratories perform these high-frequency EPR experiments, such as the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) in Florida.

    Terahertz radiation could let art historians see murals hidden beneath coats of plaster or paint in centuries-old buildings, without harming the artwork.[25]

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    https://spectrum.ieee.org/aerospace/...bout-terahertz

    Wirelessly transfer huge files in the blink of an eye! Detect bombs, poison gas clouds, and concealed weapons from afar! Peer through walls with T-ray vision! You can do it all with terahertz technology—or so you might believe after perusing popular accounts of the subject.

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    Contributor repoman's Avatar
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    It won't damage the eyes?

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    Fair dinkum thinkum bilby's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by repoman View Post
    It won't damage the eyes?
    Why would it?

    Radio waves don't.

    The only damage it could conceivably do would be through heating, but as far as I am aware, heating of water, lipids and sugars mostly occurs at rather longer wavelengths (microwaves) or shorter ones (infra red).

    Any harm from heating would likely need very intense exposure, and only have any effect on the surface of the skin - THz frequency photons don't penetrate skin very well at all, which is why they are great for security scanners - they see through your clothing but not your skin, revealing anything metallic, organic, or dense hidden under your clothes. Certainly there's no reason I know of to imagine that the eye would be particularly vulnerable.

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    Quote Originally Posted by repoman View Post
    It won't damage the eyes?
    It depends on wavelength and absorption. Eye fluid can heat up. Long term exposure at low levels can solidify eye fluid, 'floaters'.

    Back in the 80s in manufacturing RF was used to seal plastic bags, microwaves. There was no shielding. It was found operators suffered long term eye damage.

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    Fair dinkum thinkum bilby's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by steve_bank View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by repoman View Post
    It won't damage the eyes?
    It depends on wavelength and absorption. Eye fluid can heat up. Long term exposure at low levels can solidify eye fluid, 'floaters'.

    Back in the 80s in manufacturing RF was used to seal plastic bags, microwaves. There was no shielding. It was found operators suffered long term eye damage.
    Microwaves are Terahertz waves in exactly the same way that X-rays are ultraviolet light - ie 'not at all'.

    You appear to be derailing your own thread.

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