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    Administrator lpetrich's Avatar
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    Videos - Cycles of United States History

    Cyclical theory (United States history)

    For illustrating the Schlesinger and Klingberg cycles.

    United States History: Liberal-Conservative Cycles: Arthur Schlesinger Sr. Jr. (more pictures) - YouTube - alternation between two phases:
    • Liberal vs. conservative
    • Public purpose vs. private interest
    • Expansion vs. containment of democracy
    • Wrongs of the many vs. rights of the few
    • Human vs. property rights

    Each kind of period generates the other. Liberal periods end because of activism burnout. Conservative periods end because of accumulation of unsolved problems.

    United States History: Foreign-Policy Extroversion-Introversion Cycles (more pictures) - YouTube - alternation between two phases, willingness vs. unwillingess to:
    • Challenge rival nations
    • Go on military adventures in distant lands
    • Annex territory

    As with the Schlesinger cycles, each kind of period generates the other. Extroverted periods end because of burnout from military adventures. Introverted periods end because of challenges from other nations.

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    Administrator lpetrich's Avatar
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    The cycles:

    Arthur Schlesinger I II Liberal-Conservative Cycle:
    • 1776-1788 - 12 - Lib - Liberal Movement to Create Constitution
    • 1788-1800 - 12 - Con - Hamiltonian Federalism
    • 1800-1812 - 12 - Lib - Liberal Period of Jeffersonianism
    • 1812-1829 - 17 - Con - Conservative Retreat After War of 1812
    • 1829-1841 - 12 - Lib - Jacksonian Democracy
    • 1841-1861 - 20 - Con - Domination of National Government by Slaveowners
    • 1861-1869 - 08 - Lib - Abolition of Slavery and Reconstruction
    • 1869-1901 - 32 - Con - The Gilded Age
    • 1901-1919 - 18 - Lib - Progressive Era
    • 1919-1931 - 12 - Con - Republican Restoration
    • 1931-1947 - 16 - Lib - The New Deal
    • 1947-1962 - 15 - Con - Eisenhower Era
    • 1962-1978 - 16 - Lib - Sixties Radicalism
    • 1978-???? - ?? - Con - Gilded Age II

    Frank Klingberg Extroversion-Introversion Foreign-Policy Cycle:
    • 1776-1798 - 22 - Int - Revolution, establishment of government
    • 1798-1824 - 26 - Ext - French naval war, Louisiana Purchase, War of 1812
    • 1824-1844 - 20 - Int - Nullification Crisis, Texas question
    • 1844-1871 - 27 - Ext - Texas and Oregon annexations, Mexican War, Civil War
    • 1871-1891 - 20 - Int - The Gilded Age (no Scramble for Africa)
    • 1891-1919 - 18 - Ext - Spanish-American War, World War I
    • 1919-1940 - 21 - Int - League of Nations rejections, Neutrality Acts
    • 1940-1967 - 27 - Ext - World War II, Cold War, Korean and Vietnam Wars
    • 1967-1987 - 20 - Int - Vietnamization, d├ętente, dissolution of Soviet Union
    • 1987-???? - ?? - Ext - Post-Cold-War assertion, Gulf War, War on Terror

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